The authors of a 2005 academic paper questioned the classification of gender identity problems as a mental disorder, speculating that certain DSM revisions may have been made on a tit-for-tat basis when certain groups were pushing for the removal of homosexuality as a disorder. , For identities defined by to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted, see, Gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder.  Research has indicated that many parents attempt to define gender for their sons in a manner that distances the sons from femininity, with Kane stating that "the parental boundary maintenance work evident for sons represents a crucial obstacle limiting boys options, separating boys from girls, devaluing activities marked as feminine for both boys and girls, and thus bolstering gender inequality and heteronormativity.". Some societies have third gender categories. Gender intensification of peer socialization during puberty. This latter diagnosis was removed in the subsequent revision, DSM-IV (1994), which also collapsed GIDC and transsexualism into a new diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Relationship between depressed mood and sex-typed personality characteristics in adolescents. See, I told you science was on my side when it comes to supporting a gender democracy. "Sociology". Biological factors that influence gender identity include pre- and post-natal hormone levels. However, declining productivity and production of maize and rice—the main food crops—forced the government to restore subsidies in 2003. Thus, Own-GS identity might be more prevalent in emerging No correlation was found between a father's behavior and his children's knowledge of stereotypes of their own gender. A gender schema can be thought of as an organized set of gender-related beliefs that influence behavior. , One criticism of the Reimer case is that Reimer lost his penis at the age of eight months and underwent sex reassignment surgery at seventeen months, which possibly meant that Reimer had already been influenced by his socialization as a boy. And, therefore, instead of calling it globalization, we should call it globalizations. , Social scientists tend to assume that gender identities arise from social factors. In recent decades it has become possible to reassign sex surgically.  The females that were born had genitalia that looked like male genitalia. Most govern-ments have legislated to guarantee equality of treatment between men and women in remuneration. Deaux, K., & Major, B. The gender intensification hypothesis suggests that girls and boys experience increased pressure to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles during adolescence (Hill and Lynch 1983). Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender. See more. Biology, cognition and societal norms all influence a teenager’s desire to present him or herself in more gender stereotypical ways. Gender intensification means that the child feels more pressure to conform to socially sanctioned gender norms, resulting in deeper gender role differentiation for boys and girls. With the intensification of global cosmopolitanism from the 1980s onward, local gender relations have increasingly been required to justify themselves in dialog with alternative modes of being. 100) is one of the most highly ratified conven-tions. Gender intensification in adolescence increases: ! Today, sex reassignment surgery is performed on people who choose to have this change so that their anatomical sex will match their gender identity. (2009). * The Gender Intensification Hypothesis states that psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional masculine and feminine gender roles (Hill & Lynch, 1983; Lynch, 1991). Printed dictionaries and other books with definitions for Intensification. Those still living as females still showed marked masculinisation of gender role behaviour and those old enough to reported sexual attraction to women. Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals. Nelson Education Ltd., 2013. McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Whiteman, S. D. (2003). There is no single globalization.  However, numerous methods for assessing gender identity exist, including questionnaire-based, interview-based and task-based assessments. 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