During his dictatorial reign tens of thousands of opponents of his regime were tortured. Santiago's Court of Appeals on Tuesday convicted five ex-officials of Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship for poisoning seven inmates at the former Chilean Public Prison in December 1981. [68], Another group of civilians that collaborated extensively with the regime were the Gremialists, whose movement started in 1966 in the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. [22] On 11 September 1973, the military launched a coup, with troops surrounding La Moneda Palace. He participated in the design of important speeches of Pinochet, and provided frequent political and doctrinal advice and consultancy. [158] The latest is Russia, for whom David Christian warned in 1991 that "dictatorial government presiding over a transition to capitalism seems one of the more plausible scenarios, even if it does so at a high cost in human rights violations."[159]. [21] Die Kontroversen um die Rolle Pinochets in der chilenischen Geschichte zeigten sich auch an den unterschiedlichen Reaktionen der Trauergäste: Francisco Cuadrados Prats, Enkel des in den Anfangsjahren vom Pinochet-Regime in Buenos Aires ermordeten Armeechefs Carlos Prats, spuckte während der Beerdigung auf den Sarg, während Anhänger des Verstorbenen die rechte Hand zum Hitlergruß hoben. Der Leichnam wurde in der 130 Kilometer nordwestlich von Santiago de Chile gelegenen Küstenstadt Concón verbrannt. administration. The candidate was to be ratified by registered voters in a national plebiscite. Pinochet wurde am 25. Die Angehörigen der ca. Am 18. [63][65] Airforce General Fernando Matthei replaced Leigh as junta member. [7] As the CIA revealed in 2000, "In the 1960s and the early 1970s, as part of the US Government policy to try to influence events in Chile, the CIA undertook specific covert action projects in Chile ... to discredit Marxist-leaning political leaders, especially Dr. Salvador Allende, and to strengthen and encourage their civilian and military opponents to prevent them from assuming power. [19], 2005 wurde bekannt, dass der britische Luftfahrt- und Rüstungskonzern British Aerospace (BAe) insgesamt 1,1 Millionen Pfund (rund 1,5 Millionen Euro) im Zeitraum zwischen Dezember 2004 und Oktober 2005 an Pinochet gezahlt haben soll. While the Church remained politically neutral, its opposition to the regime came in the form of human rights advocacy and through the social movements that it gave a platform to. [94] It is questionable whether the radical reforms of the Chicago Boys contributed to post-1983 growth. That included an "Electoral Space" during which all positions, in this case, two, Sí (yes), and No, would have two free slots of equal and uninterrupted TV time, simultaneously broadcast by all TV channels, with no political advertising outside those spots. One of the exemptions being an Univision interview with Osvaldo Romo Mena, a civilian torturer in 1995, recounting his actions. Sebastián Piñera, Menschenrechtsverletzungen während des Putsches, Menschenrechtsverletzungen während der Militärregierung, Interview mit Ulli Simon, mare No. 1995. During the first three months of Pinochet's military regime, the Chilean armed forces and supporting police units suffered 162 killed in clashes with left-wing guerrillas and civilian supporters in the form of MIR and Chilean Communist Party militants. "Chile: A Country Study." Dies löste eine Solidaritätswelle unter Generälen und RN- und UDI-Politikern aus. Según el Atlas del Folklore de Chile", «Decreto 23: Declara a la cueca danza nacional de Chile». Pinochet quickly took control of Chile. [69] The founder of the Gremialist movement, lawyer Jaime Guzmán, never assumed any official position in the military dictatorship but he remained one of the closest collaborators with Pinochet, playing an important ideological role. Ministerio Secretaría General de Gobierno (06 de noviembre de 1979), David Altma, “Latin America”, Referendums Around the World, 2018, Katrien Klep: Tracing collective memory: Chilean truth commissions and memorial sites, in: Memory Studies 3 (2012), p. 259-269, democratically-elected socialist government, Human rights violations in Pinochet's Chile, International Committee of the Fourth International, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina, plebiscite was scheduled for October 5, 1988, refused to be confronted to Chilean justice, "DL-77 13-OCT-1973 Ministerio del Interior", "Table 4: Democide Rank Ordered (1970–1979)", Controversial victims on Chile's official list, by Eva Vergara, Omaha World-Herald, August 18, 2011, "El campo de concentración de Pinochet cumple 70 años", "New Information on the Murders of U.S. Citizens Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi by the Chilean Military", "Violencia sexual contra mujeres en dictadura: un crimen invisibilizado « Diario y Radio U Chile", Cultura Verdadera Programa Completo del Lunes 14 de Diciembre de 2015, "Lifting of Pinochet's Immunity Renews Focus on Operation Condor", "Puerto Gala y Puerto Gaviota (1985-1993): Una mirada desde el triángulo de la violencia", "Organismos de DDHH denuncian un estado policial 'similar' al de Pinochet", "Nuevos condenados por falso enfrentamiento en dictadura", "Los Muertos en Falsos Enfrentamientos: Janequeo y Fuenteovejuna", 25 Chilean Soldiers Arrested in Burning of US Resident, "El día en que Manuel Contreras le ofreció al Sha de Irán matar a "Carlos, El Chacal, "Jaime Guzmán no fue un defensor de los Derechos Humanos en el Régimen de Pinochet", "Complicity and Responsibility in the Aftermath of the Pinochet Regime: The Case of, "About this Collection | Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress", "Revista de derecho (Valdivia) – Democracia y Constitucion en Chile", "El "Golpe Generacional" y la Secretaría Nacional de la Juventud: purga, disciplinamiento y resocialización de las identidades juveniles bajo Pinochet (1973–1980)", "U.S. and Others Gave Millions To Pinochet", CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Zur Praxis und Theorie der Menschenrechte, NDR Fernsehen: Eiskalt – Pinochets Plan Z, Pinochet directly ordered killing on US soil of Chilean diplomat, papers reveal. Con- Pinochet was not an economic genius. After the military took over the government in 1973, a period of dramatic economic changes began. As a result of this, Manuel Contreras, Director of DINA, threatened Cardinal Silva Henriquez that his safety could be at risk if the Church continued to interfere which in turn resulted in death threats and intimidation from agents of the regime. [81] Most notably the organisation attempted to assassinate Pinochet on the 7 September 1986 under 'Operation XX Century' but were unsuccessful. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew. [129] Some analysts believe the fear of attack by Chilean and US officials as largely unjustified but logical for them to experience, considering the Pinochet dictatorship had come into power with a coup against democratically elected president Salvador Allende. [138] Cuba's official newspaper, Granma, boasted in February 1981 that the "Chilean Resistance" had successfully conducted more than 100 "armed actions" throughout Chile in 1980. Es gab Pläne eines Putsches im Falle einer Abstimmungsniederlage, diese wurden aber nicht in die Tat umgesetzt. Die Arbeitslosigkeit stieg stark an. [123] Pinochet's controversial relationship with Thatcher led Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair to mock Thatcher's Conservatives as "the party of Pinochet" in 1999. Eine Woche zuvor war das britische Außenministerium darüber informiert worden. Der spanische Untersuchungsrichter Baltasar Garzón hatte schon seit längerem gegen Pinochet wegen Völkermord, Staatsterrorismus und Folter ermittelt, da auch spanische Staatsbürger unter den Opfern der Militärdiktatur waren. By 1974, the Commission of Peace had established a large network to provide information to numerous organisations regarding human rights abuses in Chile. [116], Under the Labour government of 1974-79, Britain's relations with Chile were cordial, if not close. The strike lasted 76 days and cost the government severely in lost revenues. Nach der Einäscherung wurde die Urne mit Pinochets sterblichen Überresten auf Wunsch von Pinochets Familie in der Privatkapelle des Landsitzes Los Boldos in Bucalemu aufbewahrt, in dem der Ex-Diktator in den Sommermonaten die Wochenenden verbracht hatte. On 15 April 1973, workers from the El Teniente mining camp had ceased working, demanding higher wages. [90] In 1982 the two biggest banks were nationalized to prevent an even worse credit crunch. Following the approval of the 1980 Constitution, a plebiscite was scheduled for October 5, 1988, to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet. [39] Some of the most famous cases of desaparecidos are Charles Horman, a U.S. citizen who was killed during the coup itself,[41] Chilean songwriter Víctor Jara, and the October 1973 Caravan of Death (Caravana de la Muerte) where at least 70 persons were killed. Offenbar konnten ihn die Verschwörer in der Armee erst in letzter Minute von der Notwendigkeit des Umsturzes überzeugen. While Chile continues to process the violent history of the dictatorship — for example, through museums of memory — approximately a thousand former opponents of the Pinochet regime are still listed as GPO for the Library of Congress. In particular, Pinochet's decision to enact a plebiscite without formally alerting the other junta members. [43] The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front stated that 49 FPMR guerrillas were killed and hundreds tortured. This last group had its members jailed and forced into exile after performing a parody on the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. Allamand and other young right-wingers also resented the dominance of the gremialist in SNJ, considering it a closed gremialist club. Upper- and middle-class right-wing women also played an important role in destabilising the Allende government. 1980 stellte die Regierung Pinochet die „Grundcharta“ (Carta fundamental) genannte neue Verfassung zur Abstimmung, die mit Zwei-Drittel-Mehrheit unter ähnlichen Bedingungen wie die Erklärung von 1978 vom Volk verabschiedet wurde. One of the strikers, Luis Bravo Morales, was shot dead in Rancagua city. In 1990, the LOCE act on education initiated the dismantlement of public education. Sebastián Edwards, Alejandra Cox Edwards: Karin Fischer: "The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet." Auch die Schweiz hatte ein Auslieferungsgesuch gestellt. [130] In 1999, General Pinochet claimed that if Peru had attacked Chile during 1973 or even 1978, Peruvian forces could have penetrated deep south into Chilean territory, possibly military taking the Chilean city of Copiapó located half way to Santiago. Scholars later described this as a "politicide" (or "political genocide"). On 30 August 1988 Pinochet was declared to be the candidate.[154]. Estimates of figures for victims of state violence vary. [122] Pinochet subsequently visited Margaret Thatcher for tea on more than one occasion. [30], The military rule was characterized by systematic suppression of all political dissidence. According to an article written by lifelong CIA operative Jack Devine, although it was widely reported that the CIA was directly involved in orchestrating and carrying out the coup, subsequently released sources suggest a much reduced role of the US government.[1]. Tanya Harmer, 'The View from Havana: Chilean Exiles in Cuba and Early Resistance to Chile's Dictatorship's, Hispanic American Historical Review 1 (2016), 109-13, Castro's Secrets, Brian Latell, p. 125, Macmillan, 2013. 1959 und 1965 besuchte Pinochet mehrfach Schulungen der US Army, vermutlich stammen viele seiner engen Verbindungen zu hochrangigen US-Militärs und dem Geheimdienst CIA aus dieser Zeit. "[59], Starting in the late 1970s the regime began to use a tactic of faking combats, usually known by its Spanish name: "falsos enfrentamientos". [129] It is estimated that from 1970 to 1975 Peru spent up to US$2 Billion (roughly US$20 Billion in 2010's valuation) on Soviet armament. He died two weeks later while indicted on human rights and corruption charges, but without having been sentenced. Wenn der Westen Chile z.B. November 1915 in Valparaíso; † 10. Am 12. [47], In addition to the violence experienced within Chile, many people fled the regime; some 30,000 Chileans were exiled,[48][49][50] particularly to Argentina, however, Operation Condor, which linked South American dictatorships together against political opponents, meant that even these exiles could be subject to violence. Such actions had the effect of justifying the existence of heavily armed forces in Chile. Manuel Bulnes | By late 1980, at least 100 highly trained MIR guerrillas had reentered Chile and the MIR began building a base for future guerrilla operations in Neltume, a mountainous forest region in southern Chile. Gustavo Leigh, Oberkommandierender der Luftwaffe und wichtigster Rivale Pinochets, verlor den Machtkampf um das angestrebte Präsidentenamt und verließ 1978 die Junta. The far-left and the far-right performed poorly in the election.[4]. Chile: The Pinochet constitution remains an obstacle to social and democratic progress. [143] Militaries dislike of Mexican music may be linked to the Allende administration's close links with Mexico, the "Mexican revolutionary discourse" and the over-all low prestige of Mexican music in Chile. Prozesse wegen Steuerhinterziehung und Untersuchungen zum Korruptionsverdacht wurden jedoch nach seinem Tod eingestellt.[20]. Occasionally Pinochet acknowledged that he had often sacrificed legality to expediency. [126][127], When then Minister of Foreign Affairs Dominique de Villepin traveled to Chile in February 2004, he claimed that no cooperation between France and the military regimes had occurred. "Today, Pinochet is a bad memory. Pinochet wurde am 17. In that referendum, the Chilean people denied Pinochet a new mandate, opening the way for the reestablishment of democracy in 1990. Zum einen sollte der Betroffene selbst zum Reden gebracht und von weiterer oppositioneller Arbeit abgehalten werden (soweit er dies vorher überhaupt getan hatte). La Junta militar: Pinochet y la Constitución de 1980. Sottolichio war unter der Junta des Generals Augusto Pinochet (Diktator von 1973 bis 1990) inhaftiert und gefoltert worden, bevor er ins Exil nach Deutschland gehen konnte. [79] Throughout the beginning years of the dictatorship the MIR was low-profile, but in August 1981 the MIR successfully killed the military leader of Santiago, General Carol Urzua Ibanez. Pinochet maintained strict command over the armed forces thus he could depend on them to censor the media, arrest opposition leaders and repress demonstrations. 11 septembre … 1973 … Le 11 septembre de Salvador Allende. [142] The curfew imposed by the dictatorship forced the remaining Nueva Canción scene, now rebranded as Canto Nuevo, into "semiclandestine peñas, while alternative groove disseminated in juvenile fiestas". When asked by his successor as Chile’s president, Patricio Aylwin, if he regretted the abuses committed by the military regime, Pinochet responded, “We were at war, Mr. President.” In a sense, that was true. Präsidentin Michelle Bachelet erlaubte Streitkräften und militärischen Einrichtungen, die Flaggen auf halbmast zu setzen, lehnte aber das von Anhängern Pinochets geforderte Staatsbegräbnis für den ehemaligen Präsidenten und eine entsprechende dreitägige Staatstrauer ab. [31] Steve J. Stern spoke of a politicide to describe "a systematic project to destroy an entire way of doing and understanding politics and governance."[32]. The Pinochet regime was a violent one, and made sure that anyone they viewed as being opposed to Pinochet was eliminated, or forced into submission. Piñera schloss sich dieser Entscheidung an Überweisungen an Pinochet zugeordnete Firmen – Takser Investment, Cornwall Corporation. 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Den undemokratischen Bedingungen der Militärdiktatur wie zahlreiche andere südamerikanische Militärs dieser Zeit verurteilt wurde, veranstaltete Pinochet 1978 Volksabstimmung... Supplied the public with information through radio stations SNJ, considering it a closed gremialist club the agreement found Robin!

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